Volcanic New Developments and Challenges

The volcano is a peculiar system that evolution needs to be determined. Since a volcano is a complex and chaotic system, any volcanological information should be fully considered in a broad volcanic model. This type of task is not easy, many active and dormant volcanoes should be watched carefully. While it is necessary to study each volcanological parameter and assess its effect on the unisono hypothetically on the broad volcanic model, this method can be a difficult endeavor. This post contains information about the characteristics of a single volcano or a volcano region in the world in terms of future volcanic activity. The technical methods used are broad and innovative as well as applicable.

Predicting Volcanic Eruption

An important problem in the study of active volcanoes is the link between the date of eruption, changes in magma compositions and volumes observed at the surface, and the nature and time scale of magma differentiation processes underground. It is the latter that determines the timing and style of eruptions, therefore, it is what is fundamental to models of how certain volcanic systems behave and evolve and thus determines the mitigation of danger. Emergency targets are volcanoes that are active, have a history of devastating eruptions, and are located in highly populated areas. It is also important to study a well-studied volcano with an established stratigraphy and rock composition to make the most of the latest analytical technology.
Studies of volcanic samples, experimental research, and theoretical modeling provide a physical framework for interpreting volcanic events while providing insights into the dynamics of magmatic systems and how the plumbing system has evolved over time. Therefore, the collection of comprehensive observational, geophysical, geochemical and petrological datasets associated with computational and analytical facilities, instrumentation, and recent volcanic activity greatly enhances the view of how volcanoes work. Many active volcanoes have been studied for volcanic prediction using only some of these techniques. The challenge here is to consider the main chemical, petrological, physical and geophysical parameters, the history of magma rise velocities, the time scales of magma differentiation, the past and current state of the magmatic channel and the current degassing state at the same time. Volcanic New Developments and Challenges
This type of conceptual scenario can be proportional to watching stagnant volcanoes, thus predicting volcanic eruptions. Lar et al. Studied the Jos and Biu Plateaux volcanic zones surrounding the Cameroon volcanic line, occupying the northeast half of Nigeria. And no activity was reported, he observed that it was scattered with a noticeable number of dormant volcanoes. Various volcanic eruptions along the nearby Cameroon volcanic line point to the possibility of reactivation of any of the dormant volcanoes in Nigeria. The latch, in contrast, encounters the Indian plate experiencing Deccan volcanism at 65 My when it moves through the Réunion hot spot, which alters the lithospheric structure below the Kachchh rift zone (KRZ). To measure the effect of Deccan volcanism on the crust-mantle, Latch focuses on the depiction of the upper mantle structure below the KRZ by modeling the crustal corrected P-residues and P-wave telesismic tomography.
The decrease in seismic velocity in the upper mantle can be explained by the presence of compacted carbonatite and partial melts due to Deccan volcanism. Volatile CO influx 2 may be causing earthquakes in the lower crust of the carbonatite melt in the asthenosphere. Moreover, it shows the evolution of the Hwang Guamsan Tuff and the Guamsan caldera associated with rhyolitic attacks. Guamsan tuff consists of some volcanic breccias and fallout tuffs, as well as predominant ash flowing tuffs. Breccias consist of block near a vent, ash flow breccia, and caldera collapse breccia near a ring fracture. The lower member of the ash stream tuffs is produced from pyroclastic flow-forming jets where any ash cloud falls on the flow units, while the upper part consists of many ash streams resulting from the super-boiling eruptions. Rhyolitic intrusions are subdivided into intrachaldera plug and ring dykes. Volcanic activities in the caldera exhibit volcanic processes during a caldera cycle with eruption types during 63.77-60.1 Ma.
Activities proceed through expanded pyroclastic flows and ash cloud falls from the lava dome collapse with block and ash flows. It also started with pelan eruption, which was conveyed by non-expanding ash streams from eruptions boiling through multiple annular crack holes and propagating with eruptions creating a pyroclastic flow from a single central vent. Subsequent collapse of the caldera caused any displacement from a single previous central vent to the multiple ring crack holes. Boiling eruptions were followed by effusive eruptions in which rhyolitic magma was injected into ring dykes and a small plug with several lava domes on the surface. It is also transmitted by non-expanding ash streams from sprays boiling through multiple ring crack holes. Subsequent collapse of the caldera caused any displacement from a single previous central vent to the multiple ring crack holes. Volcanic New Developments and Challenges
The eruptions of boiling were followed by a small plug with several lava domes on the surface and effusive eruptions in which rhyolitic magma was injected into ring dykes, and were transmitted by non-expanding ash streams from boiling eruptions through multiple ring-crack holes.
On the other hand, Vega introduces a new methodology in case of volcanic risk calculation. Most of these medology scientific-technical and economic efforts are several methodological evaluations for assessing vulnerability. And it’s mainly geared towards evaluating threats, with much less risk. In other cases, the threat and vulnerability are evaluated independently, which logically raises many challenges for holistic risk assessment. It is also easy to verify that most of the studies, called vulnerability assessments, are vital infrastructure, only physical and functional characterizations and diagnoses of the population. These characterizations can hardly be interpreted in terms of georeferenced indexes or vulnerability maps representing the spatial and temporal exposure of the elements exposed to each threat.
These were the questions and academic challenges that prompted the PIGA Group in the field of politics, information and environmental management of the Universidad Nacional de Colombia, under the direction of the sub-signatories and with the institutional support of the Colombian Ministry of Environment. The Tolima Autonomous Region Company built the elements and ecosystems in the impact area of ​​the Cerro Machín volcano located in the Tolima Department of Colombia. Their purpose is to investigate and study the threats, vulnerabilities and risks faced by the population.
As a result, a new equation has been created and adjusted for internal threat indices to determine volcanic risk. The information contained in this equation is as follows:
• Density degrees,
• Duration,
• Elongation and accumulation,
• Fragility index
• Spatial and temporal exposure degree,
Exposed factors such as social, economic, institutional and ecosystem,
• Internal and external reactions to threats,
With these equations applied at each pixel level and using geographic information systems (GIS), the risk of damage is modeled. And it is geospatially integrated for two analysis scenarios of a possible eruption of the volcano, the onset of the crisis and the eruption. Cerro Machín ensures that, according to the logical framework of the predetermined assessment, the total risk posed by both each exposed element and each threat is obtained.
As a final point, for each analysis scenario considered, possible shelters for temporary or final resettlement of population and population centers, escape route maps, as well as total risk maps are created.

Volcanology at the Center of the People

Volcanic New Developments and ChallengesPaone showed how Somma-Vesuvius worked with a sketch on the condition of the volcano. Somma-Vesuvius is a calm stratovolcano with the possibility of Plinian-style volcanic reactivation. His stratigraphy is well known in BP’s last 40,000 years. Volcanic products that are part of the Somma caldera have not been sufficiently studied. In contrast, younger crops were studied in depth with the AD 79 Plinian eruption. The effect of the Plinian explosion has been studied and summarized. A simplified diagram is presented where the volcanic hazard is understood and the risk posed by the volcano to the larger Neapolitan population is presented. As the demography around the Somma-Vesuvius volcano has increased in the last 40 years, the volcanic risk has increased as a result. It seems that the Italian Civil Protection (ICP) still continues to be built, as its massive work around the Somma-Vesuvius (red zone) did not affect the population and Italian authority. Today, the Somma-Vesuvius volcano does not appear to be a threat, or the people living around Vesuvius are not afraid of the volcano. But, as usual at this very moment, it is necessary to spear all the things that are and will be done to all Neapolitan people working at the school in order to reach the family.
Those living around the Somma-Vesuvius tend to neglect the volcanic risk that arises around Vesuvius. So the ICP should pay much more attention to the behavior of this Dangerous volcano. Finally, any active or dormant volcano should be studied very carefully by the volcanologist. In addition, for people to be at the center of Volcanology, all information must be passed on to the people living around them.


Author: Ozlem Guvenc Agaoglu

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