Bilgiustam

Neural Recording and Stimulation


Analytical methods in neural signal processing are very important to advance the field of brain sciences, but also efficient and effective data analysis methods are needed. Early in the last century, neural signals were used in the field of engineering to discover the mechanisms by which neural activity is produced and the corresponding behavior is produced. The function of the nervous system has been identified and studied using engineering methodologies, and meanwhile, engineering methodologies have helped to understand, repair, modify, improve, or otherwise use the properties and functions of nervous systems. Neural Recording and Stimulation
Neural signals are recorded by advanced nerve recording technologies, and information is extracted for use in understanding neural representations of behavior. This signal reception is done by external devices used for signal processing. As movement is an important activity of daily life, some important neural engineering applications in the field of motor control are typically motor function compensation, movement restoration, rehabilitation, impairment detection, etc. Contains. A motion process is integrated and translated from above. It includes a number of transfers to the levels of the control system and to multi-structured musculoskeletal coordination.
The central nervous system (CNS) functions as a computational controller structure in motor behavior characterization and rearrangement. Multiple structures in the brain contribute to motor control by linking, integrating and coordinating motor-related information. Each construct is used in formulating a motor command when a particular action is performed, and the CNS alternates the command between multiple motor-related constructs. The coordination and cooperation mechanism of these structures in the brain can be determined as “black box” models that provide neural representations of the relationships between motor command input and predicted behavioral output. These models can represent multiple brain structures, particularly regions with synaptic flexibility that can receive and send information.

Neural Recording

Neuron populations exhibit time-varying fluctuations in their total activity. There are currently a variety of invasive or non-invasive recordings that can record large amounts of spatial and temporal information from human and non-human brains. Many engineering methods are applied to investigate how information about the engine is produced and what types of models can be found in certain areas during a given action.
In the human brain, neurons communicate with each other through connections known as synapses. Synapses can be electrical or chemical, and the excitatory or inhibitory nature of synapses contribute to the transfer of information. The flow and outflow of sodium and potassium causes the membrane potential to rise and fall rapidly. Rapid changes in membrane potentials are called spikes that can be recorded with intercellular or extracellular recordings. Valuable information can be discovered from the multiplication rate, the firing rate. Electrodes placed deep in the brain allow recording from individual neurons and can offer significant results in awake animals, not humans. Neural Recording and Stimulation
Multi-electrode arrays can record voltage oscillations from multiple neurons. Simultaneous recording from a large local neuron population increases the benefits of spatial resolution in extracting complex information as opposed to single-unit recording. The aforementioned invasive recording technologies provide significantly less vulnerability to artifacts and correspondingly higher resolution and larger amplitudes (voltages) and hence the performance is much more dependent on electrode technologies. However, these invasive recording technologies have some limitations, including those limited to clinical settings and the risks of surgery and implantation. Invasive recording technologies provide significantly less vulnerability to artifacts and correspondingly higher resolution and larger amplitudes (voltages) and thus performance is much more dependent on electrode technologies.
As an alternative to constrained invasive technologies, various non-invasive recording technologies such as electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography have been used in human studies. Advanced computational algorithms promise to promote signal processing and signal filtering; Therefore, more and more non-invasive recording technologies are being considered in human studies. Some techniques record neuronal potentials in the scalp, and such recordings capture population activity of thousands of neurons depending on the recording level. Multiple layers restrict the transfer of information from the cerebral cortex to the scalp, resulting in lower amplitudes of the signal and lower spatial resolution. In addition, the electrodes are used for eye movements, facial movements, chewing, swallowing, etc. It is sensitive to interactions in the environment. Neural Recording and StimulationUnder noninvasive technologies, there are imaging methods that focus on metabolic activity in the brain rather than the activity of neurons or the neuron population. When performing a specific task, the activation of brain neurons increases so that more oxygen is required and absorbed from the surrounded blood vessels. An increased flow and higher oxygen level can be detected. This hemodynamic response is relatively slow, with a peak in a few seconds and a longer time to return to the original level. Therefore, such recording technology provides good spatial resolution but very poor temporal resolution.
In addition to neural recording technologies, there are also neural stimulation technologies used in clinical treatments (cochlear implants and deep brain stimulators) and emerging neuroprotetics. This involves delivering electrical or magnetic stimulation to a specific area of ​​the brain to mimic sensorimotor feedback. Most recording electrodes can also be used for stimulations. Brain stimulations have proven effective in clinical treatments. These methodologies also include the use of signal processing methodologies to determine ideal stimulation patterns.

References:
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18429704/
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128130681000130

Author: Ozlem Guvenc Agaoglu


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