Ontologies are developed to facilitate information sharing and reuse. A method has been proposed to efficiently search for target information in a digital repository network with multiple independent information sources. The use of artificial intelligence and ontologies as information representation formalism offers many advantages in access to information. Nowadays, electronic search is mainly based on matching keywords offered by users, and the searched data containing these keywords are web pages. The ambiguity of word mixes, phrases, and poor language characteristics of web content indexing mechanisms greatly affect the results obtained from web resource searches.
The resulting search efficiency can vary depending on the quality of the search query, from a limited set of results to a very large number of irrelevant results. In some cases, specifying a few keywords may be sufficient if they are really specific and ambiguity is not possible. In another way, many web users search for information that cannot be easily identified with a set of keywords, and this is due to the breadth of expected results. Industrial pools contain large amounts of digital information, often focused on making information resources to improve collective decision support systems. In the heterogeneous and distributed repository of information resources, users search on a site-by-site basis.
Therefore, great effort is required to create meaningful metadata, organize and annotate digital documents and make them accessible. The presentation of semantically enabled resources reveals some of the benefits of semantic web technology as a semantic search, integration of heterogeneous data, and the possibility of using semantically annotated search results by software. A new and comprehensive document covering the main aspects of ontologies in AI research is the technical roadmap of the European and worldwide field of ontology produced by the Onto Web project. The first step towards true portability between systems is ontologies.
Ontologies can be used effectively to address the problem of global and general modeling across similar domains. Moreover, it is possible to embody and adapt the ontology with a specific configuration to automatically generate and validate new models. The sharing and common understanding of the field of knowledge that can be communicated between ontologies, agents and application systems can provide clear conceptualization that defines the semantics of data. The proposal is based on the principle of abstracting information items into a characterization by introducing metadata used and processed by search engines.
This principle is based on a shared vocabulary or ontology to access relevant information sources. This creates new challenges for the research community and motivates scientists to seek a recovery approach based on smart information and ontologies that automatically search and filter information based on a higher level of understanding required. In this sense, in the present study, efforts should be made to investigate techniques using ontologies to increase efficiency in access to information. So ontologies are key elements for defining the semantic web.
To achieve these goals, the interoperability of information must be taken into account. In other words, it provides the ability and products for different information systems, platforms and services to effectively and accurately share, transmit, exchange and integrate data, information with other systems, applications and services to deliver new electronic services. In this sense, initiatives such as interoperability between different industrial areas require the establishment of collaborative semantic pools between private and public sector organizations. In particular, semantic interoperability is required, which has a special interest within the program to support the implementation of distributed services.
Challenging Interoperability Across Systems
Industry and companies try to obtain maximum business value from their investments in information and communication technologies. Industry has recognized the increasing importance of systems and software interoperability for business process or government service development, integration of systems and business processes. In the business case, it expands to include the ability of two or more business processes, the service to work together easily or automatically. The ability to work together between systems to reduce the costs of industrial integration and inefficiencies, increase business agility, and allow the adoption of new and emerging technologies is a key issue.
For the two systems to be interoperable, they must be able to exchange data and then present that data in a way that a user can understand. Interoperability describes the extent to which systems and devices can exchange data and interpret shared data. Connectivity and interoperability between computers and assets and between software components can increase the flexibility and agility of industrial systems, thereby reducing administrative and software costs for industry. In June 2002, European heads of state adopted the 2005 European Action Plan at their Seville summit. Calls on the European Commission to publish an agreed interoperability framework to support the delivery of European digital services to businesses
This document proposes policies and technical specifications to link public administration information systems across the EU. This research is based on open standards and the use of open source software. These are pillars supporting European digital service delivery within the recently adopted European Interoperability Framework (EIF) and its Spanish counterpart. This document is a reference for the interoperability of the new interoperable digital Pan-European Services Delivery Program (IDAbc) for public administrations, companies and citizens. European institutions and bodies should use the EIF for operations with each other and for citizens, businesses and administrations of the respective EU Member States.
The administrations of the Member States should use the guidance provided by the EIF to complement their national interoperability frameworks with a pan-European dimension and thereby ensure pan-European interoperability. In this context, interoperability is the ability of information and communication technology systems to exchange data and exchange information of the business processes they support. ISO / IEC 2382 Information Technology Glossary, interoperability requires the user to have little or no knowledge of the unique properties of these units. It also defines it as the ability to somehow communicate between several functional units, execute programs or transfer data.
Interoperability can be thought of at very different levels of abstraction, and separations made in this respect cut all other matrix dimensions. An interoperability framework can be defined as a set of standards and guidelines that explain how organizations agree or must make decisions about interacting with each other. At the technical infrastructure level, it approaches interoperability through industry standards, and in many cases conceptualizes these standards with technology stacks. Technology stacks are conceptual layers of software and software functionality that work together between layers within stacks and between stacks in the same conceptual layer. It is possible to distinguish the three layers in a degree of continuity from a very concrete perspective rather than an abstract perspective.
The main semantic interoperability goal is to improve communication on relevant industrial knowledge between both machines and humans. To achieve this, a two-pronged approach is required to arrive at a unified ontology and to address specific and clearly defined issues. Within semantic interoperability, several dimensions can be distinguished, such as medial, administrative, or human and machine levels. Organizational interoperability is defined as the situation in which the organizational components of the industrial system can work together perfectly. The aim is an integrated industrial system that provides an efficient, effective and holistic approach. Functional purpose is different software, hardware, equipment etc. in various organizations, from multiple manufacturers. is to allow data exchange between different platforms using. .Technical interoperability enables communication and replication between systems from different manufacturers. The technical dimension includes uniform movement of industrial data, data presentation, user controls, uniform protection of data security and integrity, protection of industrial privacy, and uniform assurance of a common quality of service. Many efforts are leveraged by many standard efforts to address semantic and organizational interoperability. EbXML, the new CEFACT / UN study to align global business process standards with web services, proves to be a model for addressing semantic and organizational interoperability such as RosettaNet.
Achieving semantic and organizational interoperability requires a firm agreement on the meaning of information and harmonization of business processes between companies and governments. At one level, general interprofessional frameworks and software infrastructure approaches can and are developed for semantics and business processes. For example, the general meaning of large business transactions such as purchase orders and invoices is explained through standards such as Universal Business Language (UBL), CEFACT Core Components, and Open Applications Group Integration Standard.
Author: Ozlem Guvenc Agaoglu