Almost all animals get gastrointestinal infection (GI) by helminths during their lifetime. Although all types of parasites (Helminthes) have a very similar general morphology, they undergo four mole reforms during their development period. Each of the species shares a life span of two tadpoles, which can be weeks or years. These worms have been studied as they threaten human health as well as animals. Nearly all helminths invade tissues and establish an immunomodulatory environment for their survival, with particular attention to Treg cells. Recent research suggests that both worms and the host evolved to achieve mutual immunity-related benefits during disorders with some clinical consequences.
Numerous studies suggest that the immune response appears to be confined and even expanded to the enlargement of Treg cells. As a result, it is the improvement of the type 2 immune response that causes chronicity, but many signs of chronic helminth infection are still not fully understood. These parasites are also important, above all, as a model in which they pose a constant challenge to accommodate the immune system. Many aspects, particularly the regulation of chronic GI infection, await identification. During evolutionary processes, they are believed to have specially adapted to avoid this species to accommodate defenses.
These ingenious adaptations allow them to rearrange the host immune response. There may only be evolutionary mechanisms downregulating the early expansion of ILC 2. This is seen in the Heligmosomoides polygyrus system in which IL has shown to downregulate early ILC 2 responses in mice. However, this is IL; Not true for another parasitic Trichuris muris infection with null mice. IL 1 & # 946; This depression in the levels triggers type 2 protective immune responses and leads to worm expulsion. Helminths in the GI tract interact with the mucus layer and often pass into the epithelial layer and multiply in the area.
One of the interactions of worms with intestinal mucosal barrier and hyperplasia is the large mucin secretion that forms a layer. The mucus layer is a highly hydrated gel mucin. These are largely high molecular weight glycosylated glycoproteins secreted by goblet cells (GCs). Starter also interacts with antimicrobial compounds, commensal metabolites and finally antibodies. As in mice and humans, MUC 2 cells produce the mucus layer mainly as part of the first line of the innate immune response. Mucin production is synchronized by many immune type 2 cytokines.
As noted, IL 4 and IL13 play key roles in the proliferation and differentiation of these GCs. As the intestinal infection occurs, it initiates the worm excretion seen for many helminths, and this excretion is affected by the presence of CD 4 TH 2 cells controlled by IL13 secretion. In knock down mutant studies in mice, MUC 2 regulated by IL13 has been shown to cause defective delay in worm ejection. Promoting type 2 immunity releases IL 4, IL 5, IL 9 and IL13. Several other immune and non-immune cell activators also participate in the network of effector mechanisms that are released towards parasite excretion.
The initiation of the immune response by the TH2 cell proceeds through ILC 2 and subsets of dendritic cells. However, the sensed and trigger signals of PAMP and DAMP result in activation of different subsets of the ILC 2 bundle, dendritic cells, various T cell types, basophils, and non-immune gut epithelial cells (IEC) against intestinal worms. The heterogeneous intestinal epithelium contains seven different cells that can detect helminth infestation into epithelial cells to initiate T H2 cell mediated immunity. Total serum protein in goats is in the range of 6.75–7.53 g / dL. In the protein group, fibrinogen levels in goats fall between 0.1 and 0.4 g / dL, which is lower than that of cows. In some cases, hyperfibrinogenemia occurs with neutrophilia after inflammatory responses. In goats, the maximum plasma fibrinogen levels during inflammation are 1.1 g / dL, and gamma globulins share significantly in protein.
There are three main immunoglobulins in goat; Ig G, Ig A and Ig M. As in cattle and sheep, goats also have two different IgG subclasses, IgG 1 and IgG 2. At birth, IgG 1 is found in the colostrum and further, IgG2, preferably IgG, is transplanted from serum to mammary glands. Goat IgG 1 is the subclass which is the predominant circulating antibody produced in response to any infection that then passes isotopically to Ig E functions. Locally produced IgG 1 is also detected after arthritis encephalitis (CAE) virus infection in synovial fluid. However, little studies have been done on caprine IgM concentrations and activities. All ruminant species observe little structural and functional differences. Caprine IgA can be detected in serum, colostrum, milk, saliva and urine, and IgA is the primary immunoglobulin found on mucosal surfaces. The IgA-secreting element can be in free state or can bind to the IgA molecule.
The very small amount of IgA in the serum is linked to the secretory component. The goat mucosal immune system produces sIgA by antibody-producing cells that differentiate from activated B cells. Immunoglobulin class change is due to gut-associated lymphoid (GAL) IgA in Peyer’s patches, MLNs, and ILFs in the lamina propria. Humoral immunoglobulin isotype change occurs through proliferation of intestinal pDCs, T cell-independent and B cell activating factors (BAFFs) and ligand-inducing A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL).
As with all ruminants, including goats, IgE is typically associated with its biological activities. Today, IgE is considered a useful marker in determining the different phases of parasites and parasite resistance. The nucleic acid sequence in Caprine IgE DNA is part of the overall effort. The goat’s complementary system is provided with limited concentrations. Dynamic studies have shown that young and adults younger than 6 months of age show significant hemolytic, adherent and bactericidal complement activities.
As a result, various parasitic diseases (GIT or hemo-parasites) represent a constant threat to the goat industry for goats and goat breeders all over the world. The goat and sheep breeding community is one of the most important problems for goat breeders and sheep breeders in their countries, one of the most important problems of goat breeders and sheep breeders. These parasites are not only a problem for goats, but also pose a constant threat to their lives, serious harm. It also provides a weakening of the immune response of the goats, less resistance, and a great reason for the diverse parasite species to not only shelter within the host, but also find a safe place to reproduce and reproduce.
In line with these immune responses in the body, there is a growing demand for the use and development of various anthelmintics and vermifuges to avoid the growing list of parasites. For this reason, the immunity of animals or the production of resistance, either in the form of breed development or the discovery of innovative broad-spectrum drugs or the production of vaccines, has long been a focus and has gained immense importance. Immunity in the host body plays a very decisive role in the selection process and drug use against specific parasites prevalent in the area or animal health. There are or may be several factors against the background of immunity in the goat’s body, indicated by the various figures involved in the test to understand the mechanism or mechanisms occurring in the body in real time.
Author: Ozlem Guvenc Agaoglu