If the client has enough theta power to respond to the clinician’s suggestions, hypnosis can be seen as making some suggestions to change thoughts, feelings, or behaviors. Hypnotic strategies are any strategy that increases slow oscillations. Aware of the behavioral cues that indicate an increase in theta or an adequate theta level, it offers suggestions that enhance existing connections between neurons (for example, those that are consistent with the subject experiencing oneself with useful images or have a positive outlook on the future) or create new ones.
Therefore, it should be noted that there is an increase in theta activity during exercise and a corresponding global increase in alpha activity or spectral power (including alpha and theta bands). Fascinatingly, there is evidence that expert athletes have a higher degree of both alpha and theta activity during restful wakefulness with eyes closed. These intersecting lines of thought with Dietrich support the link between hypnosis, meditation, and acute exercise, all of which result in prefrontal hypoactivation.
As a result, we now consider the presence of increased theta activity following specially structured body movement and focus on a few specific examples involving different degrees of cross movement.
It has been suggested that rhythmic bilateral cross body movement improves motor and cognitive functions such as creativity and cognitive flexibility, similar to hypnosis-mediated findings. However, no studies we are aware of have examined electrophysiological changes during cross body movements. The diagonal axis has a metaphorical rule-breaking role in relation to the way of thinking, as suggested in the definition of “diagonal thinking” as a mixture of logical (ie vertical) and creative (ie lateral) thinking. Cross movements are widely used in disciplines based on whole body movements such as tai chi and recent paradigms such as Quadrato Motor Training which will be discussed below.
In the original definition of EMDR, he suggested that directed eye movements mimicked the twitches of rapid eye movement sleep (REM) electrophysiologically known to be associated with synchronous theta waves. Additionally, Stickgold suggested that the repeated directing of attention during EMDR induces a neurobiological state similar to REM sleep. Additional study findings supported the hypothesis that EMDR promotes the transfer of episodic memory to semantic memory, which would then be reinforced in REM-like (4-6 Hz) situations.
As mentioned above, activation of the frontal areas, and in particular the anterior cingulate, that occurs during hypnosis matches very well with behavioral changes that occur in the hypnotic state, such as the concentration of focused attention. Importantly, the anterior cingulate has known anatomical connections with the frontal eye area and the complementary eye area and therefore plays an important role in regulating eye movements such as maintaining visual fixation and suppressing reflexive saccades. For example, hypnosis is the classic behavioral marker, namely, the hypnotically-induced gaze, the dramatically reduced blink rate, and the inimitable changes in eye movements and pupil size.
The student dimension has recently been found to be closely related to various cognitive processes such as decision making. In contrast, positive correlations were found only in the high gamma band (60-100 Hz) and were similar in both waking and sleep conditions. Only a few recent studies have examined electrophysiological changes during diagonal movements. A rare pioneering study found that frontal theta activity increased during the onset of diagonal motion compared to purely vertical movements studied. Increasing frontal theta is likely due to more computational effort. The source localization also indicated that increased frontal theta activity was produced in the middle frontal cortex. Additionally, the authors found a biphasic model of frontoparietal alpha beta modulation during vertical movements.
Modulation in sensorimotor beta and theta activity is reported during actual movement and motor imagery. Marson et al. He also found biphasic modulation of alpha activity associated with the second part of vertical movements. (each movement consisted of two parts, a forward and return period, a biphasic response in the return period during vertical movement). More specifically, decreased alpha activity was observed immediately after the beginning of the return period and, consequently, in the same frequency band depending on the end of the movement. there has been an increase.
The decreased alpha activity observed immediately after the end of the second movement may reflect a decrease in internalized attention, since the decreased alpha activity is classically through sensory inputs, particularly the visual system. Rimbert et al. and Marson et al. He also found beta rebounds after the move. And it is the increased beta activity between consecutive trials i.e. both diagonal and vertical movements.
Quadrato Engine Training (QMT)
Quadrato Motor Training is a careful movement practice based on the Sphere Consciousness Model. Participants are asked to move within a square (quadrato in Italian) in a specific order of instruction. The QMT requires a high level of attention divided between the body and the spatial coordinates found in quadrato space, and quietly waiting for the next instruction. Previous studies have shown that QMT increases theta activity and improves cognition At the level of behavior, these changes have been associated with improvements in cognitive and psychoemotional functions evaluated important aspects of health and well-being.
What makes QMT different from other forms of physical activity is its effect on hemispheric functional connectivity in the theta and alpha bands. Unlike studies of other types of physical activity that focused on local changes in activity and generally did not report changes in long-range connectivity, studies of healthy populations dealing with QMT both increased EEG power and consistency, especially in theta and alpha bands. In fact, both single sessions and long QMT periods have been found to cause increased intra- and interhemispheric functional connectivity in the theta and alpha bands.
The increased theta and alpha functional connectivity is thought to reflect improved cognitive functions and higher states of consciousness due to better integration of information and communication between brain regions. Therefore, these findings provide additional evidence regarding the capacity of QMT to improve cognitive and psychoemotional well-being. Also, Ben-Soussan et al. He also found improved spatial cognition and projection in groups that underwent a single QMT session compared to two control groups who received simple motor or verbal training. The improvements were thought to result from changes in functional connectivity, as evidenced by changes in intra- and interhemispheric coherence in the theta and alpha bands.
Until recently, there were few studies investigating neural modulation during meditative movement. In a recent pilot study, De Fano et al. He studied five volunteers who performed a single QMT session, characterized by three “blocks”, which are rounds of the QMT routine. As QMT requires executive control, which includes frontal theta activity, towards the last of the three QMT blocks, higher frontal theta power is expected compared to baseline. In fact, a trend towards increased theta activity was observed towards the last two blocks, which may reflect not only the cognitive control required by QMT performance but also the increase in cognitive effort occurring overtime.
Returning to the theme of navigation and the attention discussed above, more relevant to the upper and lower longitudinal fascicles, and its connection with pronounced dorsal and ventral currents, 6-week daily QMT was found to increase white matter integrity. In addition to increased fractional anisotropy in the upper and lower longitudinal fascicles, additional pathways related to sensorimotor and cognitive functions have also been noted.
Tai chi ve Qigong
Another meditation movement paradigm, tai chi, has been studied more intensely. Various electroencephalography EEG studies have reported that tai chi can produce changes in mental state or electroencephalogram patterns associated with other changes of cognitive or physical indices. Pan et al. By examining the difference in EEG theta between concentrated and non-concentrated qigong states, it showed that the frontal midline theta rhythm was associated with concentrated qigong status.
Since theta rhythm has been suggested as one of the normal EEG patterns occurring in mental concentration, the authors concluded that the theta rhythm is an indicator of mental concentration during qigong. In particular, Field et al. They observed that performance in math calculations increased significantly after a 20-minute tai chi / yoga training course and was associated with increased frontal theta activity. Field et al. They also found increased theta activity and a tendency to decrease self-reported anxiety, and the authors attributed this to the relaxation effects of tai chi. This increased frontal theta activity was repeated in a study of skilled female tai chi practitioners and showed a pattern that typically occurs during relaxation and attention states.
Additional support for the importance of external movement, in line with its possible connections to internal movement and theta activity, comes from the fact that frequent movement is preferred over sedentary behavior for the health of the person and movement therapies are useful when applied correctly. These can alleviate chronic pain conditions by improving the pain and related symptoms. Moreover, the reported benefits relate not only to musculoskeletal or vascular function, but also to the mental dimension of well-being. For example, careful exercise practices such as tai chi have been found to be significantly helpful in chronic pain management for conditions such as osteoarthritis, low back pain, and fibromyalgia.
Author: Ozlem Guvenc Agaoglu