BIM can adopt an information system that supports a single point of truth to take advantage of the exchange of information in a spirit of collaboration and open sharing. However, it is important to emphasize that the collaboration process will involve multidisciplinary teams such as technical designers, cost consultants, facility managers, planners, and other reviewers, each using a different software platform and located in different geographic locations. A typical example would be an architect-produced 3D geometric models. The model will be reviewed by the referee by other designers before final approval by the client. When a conflict is detected, it can be changed by other users.
Information exchange in a BIM environment is likely to cause a range of problems. It is now possible to adopt a BIM integrated system that supports multiple applications. Another challenge would be that multiple users change the model simultaneously, creating version conflicts.
A lockable BIM integrated system is then preferred in this case to reduce collisions and residual data loss. The data and patterns that are exchanged are often large files, and if shared using internet-based technologies, it can cause speed and security issues that the adopted BIM system must proactively turn around. Given the fact that procurement strategy and contract are the key to running a construction project, BIM could be a new rapidity that could affect bid-to-bid relationship and management in the future. Crawford and Stephan also talk about “the opportunities that BIM ultimately offers to revolutionize the way projects are bought in the first place.” The diagram below discusses some typical BIM-related processes that can be implemented in different contract procurement methods.
• In addition, according to Digital Built Britain 2018, there are the following protocols that must be followed in BIM Level 2.
• PAS 1192-6 specifies requirements for collaborative sharing of structured H&S information across project and asset lifecycles. This PAS standard supports the development of gradually structured H&S information for all construction projects from the very beginning.
• PAS 1192-5 specifies requirements for security-oriented management of BIM and digital built environments. It outlines cybersecurity vulnerabilities against hostile attack when using BIM, and provides an assessment process to determine cybersecurity levels for BIM collaboration that should be implemented at all stages of the site and throughout the building lifecycle.
• ISO 19650-1 (formerly BS 1192: 2007 + A2: 2016) provides a ‘best practice’ method for the development, organization and management of production information for the construction industry using a disciplined collaborative process and a specific naming policy.
• ISO 19650-2 (formerly PAS 1192-2: 2013): The requirements under PAS 1192-2 are based on current codes of practice for the collaborative production of architectural, engineering and construction information as defined in BS 1192: 2007 + A2: 2016.
• PAS 1192-3 provides guidance to Asset Managers on how to integrate information management throughout the long-term activity of asset management with shorter-term asset creation activity for an asset portfolio.
• BS 1192 4 outlines the UK use of COBie, an internationally recognized information exchange scheme for the exchange of facility information between the employer and the supply chain.
• BS 8536-1: 2015 provides recommendations for briefing for design and construction to allow designers to consider the expected performance of a building in use. The standard applies to all new building projects and major renovations. It also aims to (a) involve the operator, the operations team and the supply chain from the very beginning, and (b) extend the engagement of the supply chain to operations and defined after-maintenance periods for the delivery of the project. The scope of the revised BS 8536-1 has been expanded to include briefing requirements for soft landings, building information modeling (BIM) and post-use assessment (POE).
• BS 8536-2: 2016 is part of the BIM level 2 suite of documents developed to help the construction industry adopt BIM. It provides briefing recommendations for design and construction of energy, telecommunications, transportation, water and other services infrastructure to ensure that the design takes into account the expected performance of the asset in use over the planned operating life. It applies to the provision of documents supporting this purpose during design, construction, testing and commissioning, handover, commencement of operations and defined after-maintenance periods.
• PAS 1192-2R: information management specification for the capital / delivery phase of construction projects using building information modeling and PAS 1192-3R – information management specification for the operational phase of assets using building information modeling expired in 2018.
• ISO19650 1: 2018, building information modeling (BIM) – information management using building information modeling – part 1: organizing and digitizing information about buildings and civil engineering work, including concepts and principles.
However, there is also content, digitization, interoperability and collaboration addressed at different stages of maturity that can enable new business models in BIM and beyond. Levels are presented according to the European Union Report.
The above has been applied in the UK on the basis of consistency between content, digitization, interoperability and collaboration across the project management lifecycle at different maturity levels. Moreover, to Autodesk Resources:
The European Union Public Procurement Directive in 2014 encouraged all member states to adopt BIM to increase value in public projects; The UK BIM Authorization will take effect in Spring 2016 for all centrally funded public projects in the UK; France has appointed a Digital Construction officer for the Ministry of Housing and is announcing a National Digitalization Plan that includes the introduction of BIM. Germany’s Construction Reform Commission established a BIM Working Group to develop a BIM strategy for Germany and increase BIM adoption in projects; Austria has a published National BIM Standard.
Although the Environment Agency (EA) in the UK determines the supply chain BIM data requirements during project delivery; Highways UK is conducting a series of BIM pilot projects to improve design coordination. Project team collaboration, stakeholder engagement and project delivery; Finland’s road authority has envisaged that supply chain data submissions will be in LandXML InfraModel 3 (a structured data format for civil engineering) to improve asset data records. And the Swedish and Dutch transport agencies (Trafikverket and Rijkswaterstaat) have launched a project funded by the European Commission -Con ‘on’ on BIM for road standardization and implementation. Therefore, the importance of using the Digital Structure (AEC) in Architecture, Engineering and Construction forces education to adopt curriculum-like strategies.
Author: Ozlem Guvenc Agaoglu