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Advantages and Challenges of BIM Based Railway Tunnels


A survey of 1000 active users of BIM (building information modeling) in the UK concluded that the 2025 construction strategy is a useful strategy to achieve its goals, as it brings cost efficiency and reduces the time from start to completion. This result was supported by the fact that 70% of respondents believed that BIM reduced the overall project cost, including the initial cost of construction and the full cost of living of the assets built. In another survey study, 60% agreed that BIM shortened the overall time from start to finish for new build and refurbished assets and helped meet the initial 33% reduction target. According to this survey;
• Costly and timely traditional construction models should be eliminated.
• Different design options and alternatives can be easily modeled and modified in real time during the design review based on end users and / or owner feedback.
• A shorter and more efficient design and design review process should be established.
• Evaluate the effectiveness of the design in meeting the building program criteria and the owner’s needs.
• Improve the health, safety and wellbeing performance of their projects (for example, BIM can be used to analyze and compare fire-resistant exit guards, automatic sprinkler system designs, and alternative staircase layouts.
• The design should be easily communicated to the owner, construction crew and end users.
• Immediate feedback on meeting program requirements, owner’s needs, and building or space aesthetics.
Advantages and Challenges of BIM Based Railway TunnelsThe biggest challenge, however, is not to use the technologies mentioned above in a project process, but to change the way of thinking by involving team members. Research shows how important gamification is to support interactivity. The potential impact of using gamification in construction projects is to change the behavior of stakeholders and motivate them for better performance by triggering their social skills. Many businesses today use gamification to improve collaboration and communication among their employees. A new study published by the CITB (Construction Institute Education Board) shows that the construction industry in the UK will grow by about 3%, creating many job vacancies due to the need for cooperation in the next 5-10 years.
Building information modeling provides the construction industry with an environment and framework for the perfect coordination and integration of people and processes through an open sharing of data and knowledge. A BIM environment consists of computer-aided design tools that can better understand the design and construction phases through a virtual representation of the built asset so that the construction team, property owners, and operators can be involved in detecting and resolving conflicts proactively.
In the project delivered in the BIM environment, the Client has a strong influence on the scope, effectiveness and efficient use of BIM. The client can also be motivated by short-term goals such as using virtual reality to improve project scope acceptance by decision makers. While the adoption of BIM for mega projects is likely to provide an advantageous return on investment, for smaller projects a decision regarding the use of BIM must be made based on the appropriate level of maturity after careful consideration of costs and benefits. Perhaps the use of BIM in projects should be done on the grounds that BIM will be applied to meet long-term goals if there are few projects that will outweigh the initial investment.
Cost invested in lifecycle BIM toolsets is likely to be reimbursed through smart operations of the built asset, modernized ways of working that improve service delivery, or cost reduction by increasing global competitiveness. BIM has been proposed by designers who are already familiar with it. Customers are likely to maximize the benefits of BIM if their use is extended to include asset management and compatible software. The RIBA plan of the 2013 work phases provides an overlap with the BIM tools. According to this plan;

Stage 1

BIM can be adopted at any stage of the asset development process, but in order to get more out of BIM, it would be useful to formalize the BIM task at the beginning or strategic definition. The decision to include BIM is taken early enough when the RIBA stage 1 customer takes enough time to prepare the requirements and resources to make it easier to align BIM with asset management systems when the project is completed.

Stage 2

The BIM integration strategy will be developed and tested at the concept design stage to create a functioning BIM environment. During the concept design phase, a BIM strategy should be developed to provide an environment for project integration. The strategy will determine the extent to which BIM will be used. It should also evaluate BIM capabilities in terms of expected product results, required training, communication channel, roles and responsibilities, and BIM tools. The use of performance-based BIM specifications focused on product result has an additional advantage over prescriptive requirements for software. BIM will be used by the lead designer as a design tool and to communicate design solutions with the project’s internal stakeholders to facilitate decision making.

Stage 3–4

Advantages and Challenges of BIM Based Railway TunnelsFull integration of BIM is possible in the enhanced design phase, characterized by an increased exchange of information between designers and quantity researchers. A virtual value engineering process will simulate design solutions for affordability. Consideration of design options can leverage shared visual models for analysis and risk reduction. Multidisciplinary 3D geometric models can be shared with other designers and construction teams through a common BIM environment so that constructability issues and environmental impact can be assessed. Due to the number of changes in a coordinated design, high levels of design agility can be achieved by rapidly adopting changes from peer reviewers, thereby significantly reducing the design development cycle time.

Stage 5-6

By undertaking all the information modeling, the contractor and supply chain initiates and manages the construction – tablet and mobile technology helps the team control process, quality assurance, productivity, efficiency, constructability, etc. It initiates and manages the building process in an efficient way that it can manage.

Stage 7

‘As configured’ Information is updated in response to ongoing customer feedback and maintenance or operational improvements.
An integrated BIM environment is a virtual workplace that creates a common data environment (CDE) to facilitate efficient and bi-directional data and model exchange. It is an input process output model that illustrates a BIM environment. The most important input for a lifelong integrated BIM integration is the client’s information requirement that outlines the client’s project team needs and how they will align BIM to post project operations. Input data from fully sized 2D and 3D geometric models of designers can be sent to other specialist designers or construction teams for feedback or input where the risk of data loss is reduced.
The first step to implementing BIM on a project basis is the client developing a master BIM strategy in collaboration with project consultants at the initial stage. The client will prepare a statement that will serve as the basis for appointing both designers and contractors. This statement is called the Employer information requirement (EIR), which clearly explains why BIM should be used, its driving forces, and the customer’s commitment and capacity to cooperate in a BIM environment. Where BIM adoption has been decided in advance, the client must communicate expectations before appointing the lead designer. The customer will also identify know-how software platforms compatible with existing or proposed facilities management software. This is where researchers demonstrate the added value of BIM in Hospitality Management by integrating technologies that include 3D modeling and beyond.
The use of performance-based technical specifications empowers designers and contractors to come up with the most efficient and cost-effective solutions to meet EIR. Prescriptive requirements such as software vendors will force the supply side to pay additional costs for retraining for compliance. EIR will also define roles and responsibilities, including platforms to be shared by the various parties. It is very important to cover management issues within the authority given to the project manager or BIM manager. The authorization will determine the protocol to be adopted, how information will be secured, system performance, coordination and how it will be provided, and ownership issues.
The NBS protocol defines the BIM execution plan as the designers ‘and contractors’ response to the employer’s information requirements (EIR). It will be prepared as part of the project implementation plan in the pre-contract phase and will be updated after the contract is signed. The pre-contract implementation plan communicates the data exchange approach and confirms the designer’s or contract’s ability to meet the client’s expectations.
It is inevitable that a large amount of information will be exchanged through the various value engineering iterations that occur during design and when work begins on the construction site. A typical design process will include internal and external peer reviews and client approvals. The iterative process assures the customer that the final design is optimum and it will get good value for money. To facilitate information communication during the design and construction process, the project manager will develop and maintain a master information distribution plan (MIDP) that serves similar purposes, such as a communication plan, focusing on information exchange with key collaborators.
While the responsibility belongs to the project manager, this is a common document and must be developed jointly with the managers leading the design, construction and procurement. The plan answers information exchange questions such as who created the 3D model, when it will be prepared, and what procedures it is based on. The plan should be specific to the deliverables, including models, drawings, specifications and whether they form part of the tender documents to be distributed to the bidders. A more detailed implementation plan will be agreed upon by a team of designers and other consultants after the contract.
The information provision plan will be included in the post-contract execution plan, which sets out a strategy for submission of management reports as well as technical design information. The plan should be specific to the deliverables, including models, drawings, specifications and whether they form part of the tender documents to be distributed to the bidders. A more detailed implementation plan will be agreed upon by a team of designers and other consultants after the contract. The information provision plan will be included in the post-contract execution plan, which sets out a strategy for submission of management reports as well as technical design information. Advantages and Challenges of BIM Based Railway Tunnels
The plan should be specific to the deliverables, including models, drawings, specifications and whether they form part of the tender documents to be distributed to the bidders. A more detailed implementation plan will be agreed upon by a team of designers and other consultants after the contract. The information provision plan will be included in the post-contract execution plan, which sets out a strategy for submission of management reports as well as technical design information.

References:
https://www.imsad.org/Uploads/Files/SAYI_33_2018.pdf
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/345903099_Rayli_sistemlerin_Yapi_Bilgi_Modellemesi_YBM_ile_entegrasyonu_Atakoy-Ikitelli_projesi_insaati_ornegi

Author: Ozlem Guvenc Agaoglu


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